Monday, 12 December 2016


Chaucer's dominance in Middle English literature is unquestionable. His influence is found all pervasive. Yet,there are other poetical works in different forms, not totally ignorable even in that great age iif chaucerian literature. In this respect, mention may be made of popular songs and ballads.

It fact,in the transition of English literature from Middle English to the Renaissance,an interesting literary feature is the emergence of popular songs and particularly ballads.Those songs and ballads are found both in English poetry and in Scottish. They do not ballads are found both in English poetry and in Scottish. They do not belong  exactly to the fifteenth century, and may be traced in the literary history of the earlier period as also of the later.In fact,it is different to assign place or date, with precision and definiteness to them.their authorship has also remained mostly anonymous.  

Moreover,a good many such songs and ballads are also lost altogether. as a result, no full and comprehensive account, which might have been quite rich, about them is at all possible.

These songs and ballads,however, occupy a queer position in English literature. They are mostly old,belong to autiquity,to the tradition of medieval literature. At the same time, some of them are found to approach new literature -the literature of the Renaissance. Chaucer's influence on them is undeniable,though indirect, and like him, they seem to stand at the cross-roads of a literary change from medievalism to modernity. 

Those songs and ballads do not definitely ddeserve any special recognition. What makes them noteworthy is their unique popularity, and here they seem to bear the tradition of medieval romances in their popular tales in verse and simple style. They deal with the themes of heroism, adventure and love and exhibit a remarked rhythmic balance and a pleasing metrical harmony so as to touch and catch common hearts.

Because of their common characteristics it is difficult to identity these songs and ballads separately. They seem to belong to the same genre in their subject -matter and style,and may better be styled simply as ballad poetry.

The ballad is a light simple song that narrates certain events or incidents in simple modes and harmonious and sonorous verses.It is more or less a kind of narrative poetry, and contains a short story in verse. It presents generally a tale of romance and the rhythmic and melodious verses that have the instinctive appeal of a song. Simplicity in theme as well as technique is the primary requisite of ballad poetry. Moreover,a good ballad, as the from of popular poetry, possesses an enchantment of melody. This haa aa wonderful metrical beauty that has a haunting effect on the ear that hears and thereby spells the heart of the hearer.

The earliest known ballad is the Canute Song.This is,of course, fragmentary, yet it has much historical and literary value. The kings actual part in it is quite doubtful and perhaps. not vert important. In fact, popular ballads are found abundant in the literary age,following Chaucer,and particularly iin the beginning of fifteenth century. A remarkably fertile soil for such ballads appears to be the 'Border',the scene of so many bloody encountered between the English and the Scots for long years. In this context, two particularly well known,popular ballads may be mentioned here.

Chevy Chase

One of the outstanding popular ballads on 'border'matter is Chevy Chase.This presents an engaging account of the conflict between percy of Northumberland aand Douglas of Scotland.The former wishes to hunt in the territory of his foe in order to defy him and provoke encounter.The poem describes the fierce fighting between provoke encounter. The poem describes the rival parties.Douglas is slain and Percy is shown to lament for the death of his valiant enemy. Gallantry gives way to chivalrous nobility. 

Chevy Chase stands out as aa classic example of the epical ballad that is found inspired with the ideals of The Battle of Maldon aand The sing at Brunanburh. It contains matters, both fierce and chivalrous.It has the grandeur of the fragmentary epic in its details of warfare and note of chivalry.

The Nut Brown Maid

Another popular and successful poem of the time is The Nut Brown Maid.This is not strictly a ballad of the Border and differs much from Chevy Chase.The theme here is aaltogether different -not rivalry but love.It is all about the story of a nut-brown maid,a barons daughter,and her devoted love for a squire.She follows.with utmost constancy.her beloved man who tries to avoid her.Ultimately, the steady maid gets her reward and the squire, who is actually a noble lord in disguise, agrees to marry her.The end is happy,unlike the sad ending of Chevy Chase.

Sunday, 27 November 2016


Chaucer's influence on English poetry, even after his death, appears almost unparalleled in the history of English Literature . In fact,immediately after him, there was a trend to follow and imitate him and to produce literary works on his model.Of course,his successors and imitators were not quite successful in their imitation of their mighty master. In fact,the standard achieved by them is found below Chaucer's.


Of Chaucer's immediate followers and imitators,John Lydgate is considered the most remarkable literary figure. He is even given a rank very near to his great master.But actually his literary achievements are nothing exceptional.His literary works have never the recognition of Chaucer's. 

Lydgate is taken as the most prolific author of the fifteenth century, rather of the whole of the middle English period. His composition is found to include about 1,43,000 lines.Lydgate's longest poems are The Storie of Thebes and The Troy Book,both of which are taken from notable French romances. His other works include Fall of Princes or Tragedies of John Bochas, adopted from Boccaccio's De Casibus Illustrium Virorum. The Temple of Glass and The Assembly of Gods are written in an allegorical vein.Lydgate is also the author of another voluminous work -The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man-which is sort of translation from the French works of Guillaume De Guileville. This iis also a sort of allegory and may be taken as forerunner of Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress.Of course, Lydgate has noting of Bunyan's moral conviction,character -painting and vigorous description. The best and most poetical among Lydgate's enormous works is,perhaps, The Life of Our Lady, containing several lives of the saints. This appears to bear the Cynewulfian tradition to versify the lives of saints.

Lydgate has some shorter verses, not at all of a high order,but well indicative of his poetical genius. Of them two of his bestiaries -The Churl and the Bird and The Horse, the Sheep and the Goose-may be mentioned as quite lively works. These two works are somewhat fables, written on the modelof Aesop.Chaucer's influence is noted here, though Lydgate never attained the chaucer-as-chronicler height.


Among the English Chaucerians,Thomas Hoccleve is not as prolific an author as Lydgate, But like him, he is found to imitate Chaucer's, without any noticeable success.

Hoccleve is particularly noted for his Regement of Princes, based on the Latin work De Regimina Principum. The poem,of course a long one, contains some 5500 verses dealing with the matters of varied interests -political, ethical,ecclesiastical, and so on. The poem reveals his gift of story -telling, imitated from Chaucer.There are,no doubt, some dissertations,with illustrations,that make the work didactic.

Some other Literary Names

Besides Hoccleve aand Lydgate,the best known English Chaucerians,therw are a number of other followers and imitators.They include Benedict Burgh,George Ashby,John Walton and Henry Bradshaw.Their verses,mainly didactic, illustrate amply the decadence that came over Chaucer's imitators.

In addition to those imitators,there are several poems,written by other poets but there is no definite indication of authorship here.Of such poems,bearing Chaucerian traits, may be mentioned The Second MerchantLydgate is taken as the most prolific author of the fifteenth century, rather of the whole of the middle English period. His composition is found to include about 1,43,000 lines.Lydgate's longest poems are The Storie of Thebes and The Troy Book,both of which are taken from notable French romances. His other works include Fall of Princes or Tragedies of John Bochas, adopted from Boccaccio's De Casibus Illustrium Virorum. The Temple of Glass and The Assembly of Gods are written in an allegorical vein.Lydgate is also the author of another voluminous work -The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man-which is sort of translation from the French works of Guillaume De Guileville. This iis also a sort of allegory and may be taken as forerunner of Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress.Of course, Lydgate has noting of Bunyan's moral conviction,character -painting and vigorous description. The best and most poetical among Lydgate's enormous works is,perhaps, The Life of Our Lady, containing several lives of the saints. This appears to bear the Cynewulfian tradition to versify the lives of saints.

Lydgate has some shorter verses, not at all of a high order,but well indicative of his poetical genius. Of them two of his bestiaries -The Churl and the Bird and The Horse, the Sheep and the Goose-may be mentioned as quite lively works. These two works are somewhat fables, written on the modelof Aesop.Chaucer's influence is noted here, though Lydgate never attained the Chaucerian height.


The last important name among the English chaucerians is Stephen Hawes .He wrote towards the end of the fifteenth century and in the opening of the sixteenth, at aa time when the courtly poetry of the Chaucerian tradition had become almost antiquated. In fact,in Stephen Hawes is found the last exponent of that great tradition. 

The Scottish Chaucerians
Chaucer's literary influence in his age was not confined to England only.It extended to scotland and proved instrumental to the emergence of the golden age of Scotish poetry in the 15th century .As a matter of fact,the Scottish poets,inspired by Chaucer.

Friday, 25 November 2016


The most domineering figure in Middle English literature is definitely Chaucer . His vast and varied works constitude the bulk of its glory and quality .  Yet , there are some other works by some other literary men. his contemporaries. 
Those works of his time are not comparable with Chaucer's madterpieces . Yet these have shares in the contribution to the enlargement of English literaturein the later half of the Medieval age and the preparation for the impending Renaissance in the realm of English art and literature . 

Geoffrey Chaucer
Chaucer's contemporaries are more or less found his imitators or followers. His majestic influence on them is evident  iin greater or lesser degrees. Of such contemporaries William Langland, John Gower and Barbour are to be mentioned in particular.

William Langland

The name of William Langland has a celebrity in the English language for singular work -The Book of Piers, the plowman. In the English literature of the fourteenth century, Langland's Piers Plowman stands out as the most renowned work , save Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales . Whereas the later is a social chronicle, with engaging tales, Piers Plowman is an impressive allegory, more deeply concerned with religious, ethical, social and economic problem of the time. Piers Plowman is definitely a nnovel and radical work for his age. This is aa provocative probe into the depth of the social and moral life of the age. Like Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales this remains a fine mirror of the variety and complexity of medieval life.

Like The Canterbury Tales, Piers Plowman has a prologue that has the typical dream convention of medieval literature. This describes how the author falls asleepon tthe May morning on the Malvern Hills. He has a vision of a fair field, full of folk from different ranks and occupations.This Prologue, as in Chaucer's Prologue,records a graphic picture of the English society of the fourteenth century.Social scenes,rather than Chaucer's social types, however are more conspicuous in Langland's Prologue.

The frame work of Language's poem is allegorical. This describes a series of remarkable visions.This dreamer, that is the poet himself,has these visions in tthe dream. Langland's convictions of the moral faith and the social vices of his age find expression through these visions. His ethical point of view is quite clear here. His emphasis is on the supreme sermons of truth, work and love. Mans chief task is to seek truth. to have faith to succeeded in his work and love alone leads him to heaven. Piers Plowman.stands in the pivotal position of the entire theme. He symbolizes the moral virtues of life -truth, work and love. He remains the very object and inspiration for noble living.

Langland's Piers Plowman is a mighty achievement in the English literature of the fourteenth century.It ranks very high as a social study and a  moral sermon. Its significance lies mainly in its threefold manifestation. First,its is aa graphic picture of contemporary life and manners.Second,it is aa penetrative satire on social and ecclesiastical follies and vices. Third,it is a powerful allegory of human life and morality. As a social picture,the poem throws interesting side lights on medieval life.

John Gower

John Gower,who lived between 1325 and 1408, was Chaucer's contemporary, and had,perhaps, some intimacy with him. Of course,he was more medieval than the great master, and was a little behind his time. His major works,mainly narrative, were written in the eighties of fourteenth century, at aa time written in the eighties of the fourteenth century, at a time when Chaucer had already reached the height of his literary excellence.

Gower's first important work,Speculum Homms or Speculam Meditantis is in French. This is aa long sermon against the sins of the time. His next work Vox Clamantis is in Latin. This is a dream allegory with a social -political theme. This is about the peasants' uprising of the fourteenth century.

John Gower's last important work,produced in 1383-84, is in English. This is Confessio Amantis, an ambitious project to present in pleasing verses numerous stories  ,thaken from various sources.

John Barbour

Like Langland,John Barbour (poet)our was a literary follower of Chaucer.But,unlike Langland, he was a Scottish poet. Though himself a chaurchman, he was no author of religious or ethical works.His principal work The Bruce is rather political and patriotic. 

Barbour's The Bruce, written between 1373 and 1378,is a sort of the national epic for the Scottish people. The author is found to present and preserve here poetically the memorable history of the heroic struggle of the Scottish people,under Bruce's leadership and their ultimate success.

Though based on history, Barbour's The Bruce like other national epics,contains a good deal of fictional matters.Lots of the material of romances are found mingled with the facts of history. All this, however,serves to add to the poetical as well as popular appeal of the work.

Barbour,of course,is not found to possess the hightest gifts of an epic or narrative poet. But he possesses a style that is simple, sincere and straight -forward,with a high degree of rapidity and sonority.

Friday, 28 October 2016


medival to modern literature
Chaucerian literature is essentially humanitic . It is certainly different  from and superior to its preceding literature in its interest in humanity -in human character and conduct . Chaucer's  sketches are great character studies as also the portraits of the basic aspects of human nature .

Chaucer's  literary  achievement are unique , not merely in bulk but also in creativity and originally .. His literary world is not antique , but modern . This is a steady step towardsthe great age of the Renaissance . His genius is found to put fresh and formative spirits into old things and to turn gross into gold .

Chaucer's contemporaries and successors are definitely not comparable with him . But they are more or less his followers and imitators . Naturally , they are found to have shared in the contribution to the enlargement of English literature and the preparation for the Renaissance . 

It is , therefore , remarkable to take notes if different literary men and works in the world of Chaucer , which are not Chaucerian in origin , but bear in greater or lesser degrees , his majestic influence and found to bear out amply a translation in literature from medievalism to modernism .

But what is more about Chaucer is his application of the common dialect of London and its neighbourhood as his poetic diction . This is known as the King's English which became , owing largely to his own work , the sole literary  language throughout England . 

Wednesday, 26 October 2016


Chaucer belonged to the medieval age - a dark age - an age dominated by the kingly authority , the Catholic Church and the are ignored and trampled down by the feudal structure of the then society . Literature , as the mirror of that feudal society , was centred around homiletic songs , and knightly romances . Man , rather the average individual man , had no place in that literature of feudal dominance .

Chaucer came in such an age . His varied experiences of strain and stress and suffering made him wiser of his and society . Moreover , his personal involvement in servitude , captivity and feudal atrocities as also his intimate acquaintance with foreign literary masters added to his knowledge  and experience . All those factors formed his literary magnitude as well as magnificence .

And Chaucer brought a new leaf to the old and worn out feudal literature . He introduced a new spirit into the literature of his age by his rare creative excellence . That led the way to the flowering of the Renaissance in English literature a century after. Chaucer appeared to have acted here as the very harbinger of the great moderns .

Chaucer's age was of the medieval authoritarianism . Royal absolutism , Catholic rigours and baronial arrogance , as already  asserted , marked the age. Yet , England was then in a transitional phase . The dark age of medievalism was in its last phase. So long down -trodden masses began to rise and protest against the tales of injustice and wrong . The Peasants revolution brought that glaringly on the surface . The triple authority of the crown , the Catholic Church  and the peers was in an utter discord . The overbearing attitude  of the church  and the peerage was curbed by the king out of this individual personality and capabilities . Corruption in the high officers of the church  and covetous licence among the mighty lords were exposed and defied and even thrashed by the king for his own interest.  There were new trends to oppose and criticise old beliefs, notions and views . It was a changing phase in England .

Chaucer  emerged in that phase of transition . He played a major part in paving the road to that transtion from medievalism to modernism by the wonder of his creative literature . Herein lies the essence of a master , who , though of the old world , remains with the great moderns .

Indeed , English literature  was awakened in the second half of the fourteenth century from the stagnation of stereotyped medieval literature . That was made possible due to genius of a great literary master Geoffrey Chaucer . English literature , in course of its advancement from tge old English period to the Middle English , reached a height of excellence in Chaucer's  hand , in his mighty literary works of a lasting fame .

Medieval English literature , prior to Chaucer , mainly consisted of Christian homilies , sermons and lives , Romans , allegorical poems , in addition to religious and ethical prose writtings . These are all more or less stereotyped literary accounts of some saints , nuns , chivalrous knights and lovely ladies . Individual traits in men are all missing in them . Characters are only known as princes , knights ,  lovely ladies , priests , innkeeper's , shoe maker's , different guildsmen , and so on . But Chaucer brought lliveliness and individuality to preceding barren medieval literature . 

Tuesday, 25 October 2016


Chaucer belonged to the medieval age . It was a dark age , haunted with Catholic austerity and feudal atrocity and feudal atelrocity . Spontaneity in life was all kept suppressed and silenced by the rigours of the authority .
Naturally , in such a state , the genial zest for life was found to be missing in the literary pursuits of the time . Yet , Chaucer breathed in plenty spirit and liveliness , so much needed in lasting creative literary works . In fact , he had in plenty what most of his fellow poets lacked unfortunately , the sense of the comic , rare for his age . 

The comic spirit is particularly resonant  in two elements-wit and humour . In fact , the fun of life and literature is closely associated with the flash of wit and the depth of humour . Wit is an intellectual flash rather a sort of intellectual exercise and it gives diversion and delight . Humour , too , is an intellectual gift , a sensitive expression . It causes laughter just as wit does . But the play of wit is spectacular , somewhat superficial , but in humour , laughter is deep and dignified . Both these elements of wit and humours are necessary constitution in the respresent of any sense of the comic . This is so with Chaucers literary talent . His creative genius bears out , in a plentiful measure , his wonderful  sense of humoum with which the rare flash of wit is found well mingled .

The Canterbury  Tales , Chaucer's  last and best work , is imbued with his most delighted  sense of the comic . The work is , no doubt , great as a wonderful  document of the English social life of the fourteenth century . But it is also a delightful comedy of human life , a grand social comedy , through it is no drama technically .

Chaucer's comic art is vividly revealed in The Canterbury  Tales . In his conceptiin and execution of the entire work , a truly comic spirit is intensely felt . The idea of bringing so many pilgrims together is certainly  quite humorous . But more humorous and witty is his description of different pilgrims , with the wonderful fidelity to reality  and a profound sense of humorous . Chaucer makes his pilgrims  quite engaging . Chaucerian humour is certainly the chief draw here .

As a comic artist , Chaucer goes deep to what is incongruous in human life and behaviour . He does not fail to make fun with the pilgrims  drawn  by him in the prologue . All his portraits sharply indicate a sense of joy that the true comedy possesses . Thus , although the Knight is not drawn  for the purpose of fun , the poet makes diverting reflextions on his horse and its nature . His horse was good , but he was not gay . More enjoyable , however , seems Chaucer's  description  of the Cook . He mentioned  the Cook's skill in different ways , and in doing so , he also makes fun of his nature .

Saturday, 22 October 2016


As a story- teller in verse , Chaucer , no doubt a unique master of narration is found to be grand observer of life and society around him . As he narrates his tale , in simple and melodious verses , and creates engaging charcters , he presents , too , the life of his time scrutinises its specific traits , with lively and realistic touches .

In The Canterbury Tales , which is the crowing glory of Chaucer's literary achievements , is found fully exhibited his power to represent the fourteenth century English society in its different aspects , ecclesiastical as well as secular , with a rare artistry . The Prologue to The Canterbury  Tales is found to testify to his close association with the English life of his time . Truly speaking , it remains a great social documents of fourteenth  century English life in verse.

Indeed , in the prologue , Chaucer represented adequately different strata of the English conmunity under the feudal hierarchy . He presents here different character to represent different classes of medieval English society . His triumph lies in his power of observation and analysis that makes his characters typical of the age or society they represent , Here Chaucer stands without any parallel among his predecessors and contemporaries . 

The very conception , on which The Canterbury Tales is based , has a social background . Chaucer is found to exploit here the medieval religious practice to visit the tomb of Thomas Becket at Canterbury . That was a custom in which all the sections of the British people were participants . The pilgrimage to Canterbury is the occasion of Chaucer's Prologue in which he introduces different pilgrims , belonging to different professions , occupations , or functions , both secular and ecclesiastical .

Indeed , the Prologue alone bears out Chaucer's power to observe and examine , in a vivid and lovely manner , the fourteenth century . Except the highest ranks of the feudal order , the varons and the bishops , and the lowest , the serfs , all other sections are possibly represented through different characters , making pilgrimage to Canterbury .

In fact , Chaucer is found to present the then English society through different portraits introduced by him as the pilgrims to but they mainly focus the social types which are represented  in the work . Above all , colour , variety , interest and charm which Chaucer  had represented through  his portraits of pilgrims  make the whole social picture precise , clear , engaging and emphatic .

Wednesday, 12 October 2016


The Canterbury Tales , though an unfinished work , is definitely the best specimen of Chaucerian literature and remains unsurpassable in the English literary works before Spenser . What , however , constitutes the crowning interest in this unfinished work is the finished and most artistic execution of the Prologue to the Tales .

Prologue implies a kind of introduction and in his sense the prologue to the Canterbury Tales may be taken as Chaucers introduction to his whole literary scheme in the work . He , no doubt , intended to make the Prologue a befitting introduction to his entertaining tales about which he had perhaps not drawn any definite plan . His original plan to have two stories , told by each pilgrim enroute to Canterbury and two more in course of the return journey , is given out here .

Of course , that was , perhaps only schemed ,  but not put into any definite literary action . Nervertheless , the Prologue was employed by him , with an eye to the whole scheme as a just introduction to his numberous tales , characteristic of the age .

But what Chaucer has achieved in the Prologue is something more than a mere introduction . The Prologue to Canterbury Tales to Canterbury and planning to make their journey diverting and free from monotony by telling tales to one another .

The most important thing that Chaucer is found to have accompanied in his introductory purpose is to bring the picture of the entire English society of his time , and this is truly a unique attainment . Within the brief compass of some eight hundred and sixty lines , the poet has presented the whole English conmunity of the fourteenth century with different classes and ranks and professions , except the nobles , the bishops and the serfs . This is really a commendable representation in a precise and entertaining manner . Indeed , Chaucers Prologue passes from a mere introductory verse to a poetical social chronicle of a high order.

Wednesday, 5 October 2016


Our mother tongue Bengali. It is not only the face, and the language is in our hearts. We are in a dream, dream. We sing in this language life, arrange your life, all the joy of life, express excitement. Bengali was introduced at our world a unique, extraordinary people, as a nation-loving heart of her mother tongue, and fresh blood poured out on the streets did not skimp.
The globalization today 'Global Village'. One day we will be a resident of the Global phyamilira. And that day is not too far away.
The English name is a very clever and intelligent people. The only nation on earth, there are no Independence Day.What does that mean? This means that they would never submit to anyone.None of them has ever covered chain of subservience. But one day, they ruled half the world. It was the British Empire, the sun never went down.
Their vigor and intelligence in the world, many countries have ruled. One day they came from thousands of miles away to do business in the upper-shaved head of the sub-continent could be. They left India in 1947 without bloodshed, but still most of them written by the public in all of India. They left with the laws of our country is still kacari Court.
At one time, nearly half of the world ruled by the British sadarpe. Today is their day, however. However, their talent, intellect, geist, literature, language and culture ebansarbopari the world today, they are staying.
Their mother tongue is English, the international language of the world, established today. Aphisiyyala language as well as almost all of the countries of the introduction of the language. There are widely practiced in our country and the language.
In the case of rail and air travel tickets, bank statements, certificate otransakripta Board, the use of English as the leading verdict. International business transactions, etc. to the English. Yatasaba in the world, jnana science all written in English.
However, in our country, how the English language is being practiced nowadays? Our school, college or university and how the groups are taught in the language?
The system is being adopted in our country pathadane English subject matter, it does not seem to be getting some work done. English dominates the KG school education, including various kinds of English medium schools and English language schools and colleges in the nation when it was established as dakhalata is decreasing day by day. Nowadays quickly into the streets of English language learning various signs, such as IELTS, TOEFL, seven or -five days that offer English language teaching how to split up, keeps track of who? British Council and it is not less. There is no passage in this regard then. And as our reputation is declining, the more we are going to be isolated abroad. And that was the day, our country passed the entrance could speak English fluently. A lot of time with them, and even the British could never afford.
But what the hell? Nowadays, many of us BA-MA, to be passed on to the beautiful boy of itself pilera two lines can not write or speak English.
During the nineties of the last century in our country the benefit of their students in the graduating class for use in attaining the goal of raising the same issue of the English. The degree and level of English is not mandatory.Secondary and higher secondary levels, where two letters of 00 marks in English are mandatory, there is no reason to degree level in a letter just 100 marks is mandatory? Degree level education in English by compressing jatitara What we do is defeat! During the nineties, who has studied, most of them engaged in the teaching profession at different levels. They are able to give their students how to learn English, if the input they consider themselves to say good parenakathinyera school with 100 high school number 00 and 300 degrees, the level should be mandatory. But at the opposite. In this way the teachings of our cases, the opposite appears to be more active cakatai.
Our primary level, secondary level and Communicative Approach Competence -based system has been introduced in the name of the question, the age of our students at all levels, how much talent and rucike priority has been given to what appeared to be the big question. Translation excluding any I do not think that has been achieved. Translation, we learned our time trying to learn English, you've got a great deal. Grammatical rules for the use of the item, Pair of words, Phrase & idoms aid, etc. With the growth of Competence in English had the opportunity today to our doctrine of Tense neiamara very beautifully to the rules, there is now the opportunity to learn as . From the sixth to the ninth-tenth grade NCTB Free Grammar and Composition books that have been written in the book in English. It was apparently more harm than benefit.
At the primary level and secondary level students from English Unseen Passage accompaniment What is the answer?What do you think of all the boys in the sisu Creation fear is not English?
Listening and Speaking once again in recent years for (10 + 10) = 0. number has been assigned. In fact, the amount of these practices are, or will be, it should have considered before.
Indeed, the incoherence of our country, our new generation of English education English language teaching bhitasraddhai making every day. All the duties and responsibilities of all concerned in our education.

Saturday, 1 October 2016


Chaucer's  most criginal and truly English work is The Canterbury Tales , Which is the product of his sufficient maturity as a story-teller in verse . In this very ambitious project , Chaucer is found to turn to England and the English society of this time . The work ,breathing the spirt of genuine poetry , is a laudable effort to capture the spirit of England in the fourteenth century , and may well be taken as an emblem of truly national poetry , as a national social epic of fourteenth century England .

Chaucer began to work on The Canterbury Tales about 1387 , in which his wife philippa Chaucer , as far as known , died . He continued to work on it till his own death , some thirteen years after . Obviously , the work was left unfinished by him .

The formulation of the scheme of The Canterbury Tales was certainly activated by the practice of a large number of pilgrims to visit the holy tomb of St. Thomas at Canterbury . It was common for such pilgrims to move in groups for security and to entertain themselves with  various stories for relaxation during their journey from London which generally lasted for three days or more .

Chaucer planned a comprehensive portrait of his contemporary society from the conventional pilgrimage to Canterbury . He brought together several pilgrims , belonging to different stations and occupations and geared up his creative genius to enliven them all .

The Canterbury Tales , as already asserted , to Chaucer English period . His main inspiration is , no doubt , the English society of his own time . Yet , the influence of foreign masters mights well be traced in the work . The subtle dwployment of realistic details in Dante's Divina Commedia appears to have an influence on his description of the pilgrims in the General prologue to the Tales . Again , Boccaccio mechanic contrivance of the collection of stories ib the Decameron might have provided Chaucer with the plan to attribute different tales to different pilgrims . Of course , Chaucer literary genius is found to have transmuted Boccaccio metal into gold.

Chaucer's plan in The Canterbury Tales , as noted already , is quite extensive. There are thirty pilgrims , including the author himself , who are to visit Canterbury . Those pilgrims  are selected from different walks of life . There are tge friar , the monk , the priest , the pardoner , the summoner , the parson , the knight , the squire , tge frankin , the merchant , the doctor of medicine , the cook and so on .

Sunday, 25 September 2016


With Chaucer is perceived the beginning of an era- a new epoch - in the history of English literature . He is , indeed , the greatest name among the English men of letters before Shakespeare . But this is not all , for he had the credit to introduce the modern note into English literature.

Chaucer's achievement , as a poet and creative artist , as the maker of a literary tradition , can hardly be exaggerated . When examined against the background of Anglo-Saxon literature and Anglo-Norman , his uniqueness and anplitude , as a literary master , become clearly evident . In him is found a great innovator who brought into English poetry a light that had never been seen before , who raised English literature to a height that it had never attained before . In fact , in various ways and diverse forms , Chaucer is found to have erected an edifice of all gold over the hard stone of Anglo-Saxon literature and the barren field of Anglo-Saxon . 

But this is not all . Chaucer is a medieval poet , not simply a modern one , and he represents fully the medieval spirit that was dominant in the literature of his time . He belonged to the medieval world , in action and spirit , and knew medieval life in its various aspects . His multiplicity of occupation enabled him to grasp the numerous experiences , connected with medieval life and activities . His literary art is found to transmit much his experience and knowledge of medieval life and literature. 

One of the primary notes of medieval literature is found in its story-telling aspect . Under the French influence and the Italian , the medieval English poets displayed more or less too much proneness to story-telling . This is found perfectly expressed in Chaucer who has remained one of the finest story -tellers in verse in English literature . His numberous works , inspired under different influences , bear out his power as a story-teller . The Knightes Tale and Troilus and Criseyde , his notable works in the Italian period , are rich in the gifts of story - telling . Drawn from the sources of Boccaccio , these texts present the stories of a chivalrous and adventurous life , and the tenderness of warm and devoted love . Here they seem to bear the tradition of medieval romances , although they are made of a better literary stuff . Chaucer is found , no doubt indebted to Boccaccio  for the plots of his poems , yet his originality is well demonstrated all through , and the mere adventurous events of Boccaccio tales are found transformed into the highly impulsive love - poems by Chauces sheer poetic genius . In The Legende of Good Women , Chaucer's great gift of story telling also remarkably comes out . But the crowning piece of Chaucer’s literary genius is The canterbury Tales , in which the tales told are no less admirable and effective . These tales are the expressions of Chaucer's genius and profile in story-telling . This is definitely a medieval strand in literature , much perfected and embellished on Chaucer. 

Thursday, 15 September 2016


Various events to remember the history of the pearl string or garlands can remember his picture. Malata hold a full twist. Sutata cut the grain, such as one by one, after all, is not just the history of the sutata catch an event in the history of the whole world will feel an unrelated grain. Sutata able to catch up again, this will be possible to come up with the entire bisbaitihasake a Malayan.

Again, the pearl necklace, the beginning or end, but what it is impossible to determine. From anywhere you can go back over the whole malatara. World history or the history of any nation or community or state in any sense an important event in the history of chuilei be able to come back on. I discussed the history of English literature from the beginning to the end of the first or hate. I want to start from the middle or our recent past. A popular literary device as being "in the middle of midiyasa resa-start.

Starting from there, I'll run behind the front. Forty minutes since're going to run a big long walk because there is no scope in the field of history. Urabo like the eagle. Abide with me. However, we have already started to fly, however. Conversations are!

Many people write the story of his own life to write his autobiography. Just what is actually an autobiography of his life story? If we look at an autobiography, but mostly to see, occupies more space to other people, other people's stories. In fact, what may be the story of the people alone? Samparkaito with others to create the story of our lives.

The same did not apply to writing the history of a country? What is the history of a country when it is written in the stories that are written in this country or to other countries involved, what is friendship or enmity badhane bound or involved in writing, etc.?

What is the history of literature in the country, politics and other countries of the story / stories can be excluded?

I'll discuss what I know today, the history of literature, culture, philosophy, and his relationship with bahihbisbera was like, how he pulled reference?

What is novel in English literature there is no single Russian writer Leo Tolstoy's "War and Peace" or gastabha phlubarta French author of "Madame bobarira the world? This is the question many readers from the Encyclopedia of World Literature is mentioned britanikateo.

"It can be argued that no single English novel attain the universality of the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy's' War and Peace 'or the French writer Gustave Flaubert's' Madame Bovary."

(Entry: English Literature, Encyclopaedia of Britanica, V-18, page-426)

Another thing to keep in mind: This is the best English prose writers of the twentieth century, but the land outside of England! Starting from this time Salman rasadi VS naipala or Joseph Conrad, Henry James, from England, is one of the original.

What is the relevance of English and English literature to talk about? What about our relationship with them, many said bhasurera brothers. From Rabindranath cloud, Ghulam Murshid of Nazrul. Our past, present relationship was never tastes. Rather, acid-sweet, bitter-firewood all. A genius of Rabindranath Tagore in Bengali literature, saying:

"The English language through literature, learning to know and enjoy the arjitamana identity. Burke was filled dinarati bagmitaya, mekalera bhasaprabahera tarangabhange; Shakespeare's plays were regularly discussed, with Byron's poetry, and then sarbamanabera bijayaghosanaya politics. Then we begin the pursuit of freedom karechiluma people, but the hearts of the British believe in generosity. He believes that once was so deep that our sadhakera determined, by the conquered nation favors will be ample. "(Civilization crisis, ratha)

(Kalantara, Rabindranath Tagore)

The first thing to remember before you navigate to the main discussion is not mentioned. Ullamphanake is largely divided into a number of English literature. There is no mention of them in the first place.

School: Background of different groups, named-details

Writer-poet-cintakadera thinking in a certain period, variation or later finds matches of the author-poet-cintakagana. A common name for ekaname easily call their predecessors attempted to general trends in the history of art and literature. We have a lot of history to the era of English literature, will be familiar with many of the school. They were not aware of a single romantic trend Romantic poets. Gothic novelists did not know they were going to a particular section. Greibhaiyarda who came to be known as the school did not know that they'll be familiar with this name!

Spensariyana poets writing poems, they belong to those who like Spencer went. Metaphysical Poets themselves did not think this was to receive.

However, to facilitate the discussion focus on the division of English literature at the age of universally accepted:

TitleDurationThe Anglo-Saxon Period449-1066The Middle Ages1066-1485The Renaissance1485-1660

Elizabethan Age1558-1603Jacobean (Latin) 1603-1625Caroline1625-1649Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum1649-1660The Restoration and the Enlightenment1660-1798

Restoration Period1660-1700The Augustan Age1700-1750The Age of Johnson1750-1791The Romantic Period1798-1832The Victorian Age1832-1901The Modern Era1901-present

I will discuss the history of English literature from the beginning to the end of the first or hate. I want to start from the middle or our recent past. A popular literary device as being "in the middle of midiyasa resa-start. Yes, I would like to start from the Victorian era. And some of the early twentieth century, speaks again to go backwards.

Victorian era (18321900)

Great Victorian era a golden chapter in the history of Great Britain to Great Britain. Art, literature, politics, trade and influence in the world at the time exceeded all previous epochs. From the time of Queen Elizabeth of Britain as a world power began to emerge during the Victoria's morale is to become the world's most influential British Raj. With the political influence of politics and philosophy, as well as novels, poems and prose in English literature up to peak perfection.

However, Queen Victoria ascended the throne in 1837, but in 1832 the Reform Bill of 1832 because of the Victorian-era killing filler and literature since the Romantic era was a turn. A couple of years together in the fall of some big talent who died in the space of a few years. He was recently seen in the literature is a void. The survival of the foremost poets of the Victorian-era romantic poetry of William Wordsworth's one of the disappointments of losing the present time, and farming has kamduni. One thing to keep in mind Wordsworth of his best works he had written the first half. In fact, the second half of his long life, no celebrity could not leave without reminisced about the first half.

To understand the Victorian era should keep in mind a few days ago, the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the British colonies were so extensive that "the sun never sets in the British Empire is not. As a result of the industrial revolution was a revolution as the production system and its impact on the people. The old feudal society, breaking the bourgeois, capitalist social structure is being developed. Of course, has the effect of art, literature, philosophy and politics

Two important aspects of the Victorian era;

First of all, there was no fear of war or risk not from the outside (as it was in the previous yugatite. Especially Napoleon.)

Secondly, the whole time that was critical of the Christian faith, especially cintajagata.

Even the big vicissitudinous not trade the range or in the UK, social, religious spheres have been turned upside down the Victorian era. Crimea yuddhatai this period was the biggest battle for Britain. In addition, calls India's first freedom struggle 'Sepoy Mutiny' was the name of it is easily able to suppress. India's struggle for independence in 1857 after the failure of the whole of India came into Britain karatale. Came into the possession of Australia, Canada and many countries in Africa.

The large colonies around the world to collect raw materials for the production of large moves in Britain. Again, the market was prepared to sell their products at higher prices colony or colonies. Some large industrial cities in Britain was built. Manchester, lyankastara, Durham, Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Newcastle, one of nardramabaralyanda. Industries and production speed communication system with a lot of people come up to speed. Go to the giant Giant speed railway brings to people's lives.

As usual, people come to the cities in search of work began to increase the pressure. A few decades ago, people from the village to the agriculture industry workers began to write down the name. Victorian era, when it reached the extreme limit. People came and went in the village agricultural workers and laborers. At 70 percent of the total population in 1870 was seen in England was working. And only 30 percent remained in agriculture. Another information to remember. In 1825, when Britain had a total population of about 13 million, after the death of Queen Victoria, it had become a triple.

Britain is full, vibrant and full of people saharugulo production started. The working class is the main place in the shadow of the city's slums, or off the coast. The factory workers lived in filthy and unhealthy slums. Adequate light and air in 40-50 laborers worked together, slept. We'll describe the indescribable suffering of their writings Victorian novelists, poets, poetry and writing cintakadera. We note that if the country is to be very clear about.

Kamiunija to remember the Victorian age, sosalijama up revived as a political ideology. The massive exploitation of the bourgeoisie against the proletariat, the working class, a small neighboring European countries including Britain, the working class is slowly awakening. In 1848, Karl Marx and Engels published the famous "Communist Manifesto" or "Manifesto of the Communist Party." It is a Victorian gurutbapunya turning point. Another book in the Victorian era, thought, philosophy, science and literature that shook the world with utter the famous Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" (1859). It's all come out until dharmabhabana, samajacinta and struck down the framework of science. Next to him is the situation in the famous words of W. B. iyetas like:

Things fall apart, centre can not hold

Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.

So philosophy, science, dharmabhabanaya that its impact was being turned upside down samajakathamote, thoughts and sahityaritite industry. One thing that is noticeable in the Romantic era, a lot of gifted poets of the Victorian era before the junction with whom Britain was no longer the era to compare. Similarly, the best novelist of Victorian-era Britain, with whom, and what happened gadyakaradera samayayera assembly is not actually compare. However, some of the best poets of the time came, however, to separate yugatake especially for the novel and prose.

Britain, with its culture and its language is to expand the market is expanding. The British publishing world and a big jump silpabiplabottara. The idea of ​​public education to increase the number of people known to be read-write. It was in fact journals, periodicals and during the rise of the novel. In 1844, Britain's Telegraph dude in the whole of Europe took badhane cosmopolitans from a relationship. The time now is the Internet, Facebook, Skype, etc. can remember. They have brought a radical change in how our communication system. Like the telegraph and railway communication system is a milestone. At Elizabeth seiksapiyara, holding hands, such as Marlowe and Ben Jonson have already played an important role, as well as the role of Victorian-era novel has.

Sixteenth, seventeenth century was high drama, as well as the popularity of the novels of the nineteenth century, reached the top of popularity. Philosophy, poetry, science or commerce in a lot of the places discussed in the Victorian era. When you write a novel on the history of literature, however, will be more light. Queen Victoria, the heir to the throne since 1837 Dickens' pikauika Papers "in 1891 from the Thomas Hardy's novel Tess of the durabarabilas in the middle of numerous English literature Raushan increases.

The Victorian novels and novelists discuss agai. The name comes first in the list of novelists Charles Dickens (18121870) Name. Born in general is very poor and contribute to the great writers of literature is quite an honor to come up with the name of Charles Dickens. If writing a lot of money, prestige and contacts Dickens is one of the writers. Her writing has been on the struggle in his personal life, he grew up, his environment, his country and the society calacitra. Characters taken from his own familiar world or neighborhood. From an early age, but his first job was to enter the world of writing and popular writing hacchepikauika documents. It has been published continuously at 1836-1837. "Pikauika 'climbed to the top of the fame began. And just dhinano each milestone. Alibara twist (1837), Nicholas nikalabi (1838), The Old Curiosity Shop (1840), David Copperfield (1850-51), blika House (1852), Hard Times (1854), A Tale of Two Cities (1859), Great eksapekatesanas (1860), co-wrote more than twenty novels.

If there is an art to be entertained Charles Dickens is a great artist. She smile-cry of the people, teen-suffering has created a literary classic. He wanted to show the struggle of the weak against the triumph of literature vigorously. In exchange, he received the precious gift of the love of the people. Seiksapiyarera the popularity of the novel can be compared with the popularity of the drama. Both men, like their contemporary studies and tried to entertain them. In his writings contemporary London and its people and the struggle for existence in a manner which is due to come up with a "special correspondent for future generations' (like a special correspondent for posterity), journalist and essayist Walter bejeta his contemporaries called it.

Another British Victorian novelist was born in Calcutta, India, he is the William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863). The artist is attempting to exaggerate the novel gold. The name of its most famous and discussed the novel, Vanity Fair (1848).

Ekajhaka ramanikula

Ekajhaka outstandingly gifted Victorian-era literature, women writers threw a response. Among them at least four or five in the list of World Literature of the best novelists. They are: George Eliot, Charlotte branti, branti Emily, Anne branti, Elizabeth gasakela others.

Disaraili and Gladstone:

Nearly half of the territory at the time of Queen Victoria, Britain ruled the world. And within British politics would revolve around two important politicians. They Gladstone and disaraili.

Tuesday, 6 September 2016


Three distinct periods or stages are discernible in Chaucer's poetical works , so vast and so varied . It is , however , not at all possible to ascribe any of his particular work to any specific period or stage . Some tales of The Canterbury Tales , for instance , were written by him in some earlier phase or time . But these are found grouped and arranged in the final stage .

These three Chaucerian periodss are the French , the Italian and the English . This division is based on the three distinct phases of Chaucer's literary career . But such a division is neither exact nor all fair . Chaucer works , attributed to the Italian period , thus , are marked with French influences . These works are liable to be construed as the works of his French period . This classification , made on the basis of distinct literary influences , is to be taken not too scrupulously .

The influence of French literature is remarkably patent in Chaucer's works all through . The Italian romances are found to inspire his story - telling in verse .  His acute observations on English social life and conduct are definitely discernible in his literary inspiration and success in the final phase of his literary career . as a matter of fact , a better appreciation of Chaucerian literature needs a close acquaintance with these three distinct influences .

To the French period of Chaucer belong some of his earlier works , which are mainly allegorical . Some of his love lyrics , marked with grace and tender sentiments. are the product of this period . Of course , most if these lyrics are at present no longer extant . The best known of such lyrics is the Romaunt of the Rose , a translation from the popular medieval love poem Roman de la Rose of France . The poem is rather long , and contains , in octo-syllable couplets , a graceful allegorical presentation of the whole course of love and reveals much of Chaucer"s originality . But there are controversies as to Chaucer's  exact personal contribution to the translation .

The most remarkable Chaucer's  works of the French period is The Boke of Blanche , the Duchesse , a courtly and aristocratic elegy , written about 1368-69 , to commemorate the death of Blanche , the first wife of Chaucer's patrin , John of Gaunt . This work is mainly allegorical , although it bears out decisively Chaucer's lyricism . The allegorical element of the poem carries a note of praise for beauty , signified by the late duchess . The longest of his early poems , this does nowhere appear abstract , although it has much of traditional elements-dream , mythology , fancy , and so on . It contains enough substance of reality in the character of the Duchess herself and in the deep grief for her death .

Monday, 5 September 2016


With Chaucer is perceived the beginning of an era-a new epoch -in the history figure before the Renaissance and the greatest name among the English men of letters before Spenser and Shakespeare . But what is more , this is not all , for to him belongs the credit to usher in modern English literature . In various ways , Chaucer gave a new impulse and a new vitality to English literature , and raised an edifice of all gold over the rough stone of Anglo Saxon literature and the barren field of Anglo-Saxon literature and the barren field of Anglo-Norman. Chaucer's genius was versatile , as his life was varied and chequered. The variety of experiences, with which he was confronted in his personal life in various capacities -as a page, yeomen, soldier esquire, diplomat,courteir, official,Member of Parliament, and so on - was the source of his astounding and nobel literary inspiration. His multiplicity of involvements and occupations enabled him to grasp the numerous experience of life that include even his humble occupation as a page in the household of the countess of Ulster and captivity as a soldier during the seige of Rheims. The rare literary genius in him successfully transmitted all those experiences into his writings to create several lasting works of art. To the varied experiences of his life were added Chaucer's acquaintances with the literature of other countries, particularly of Italy and France, where he went on diplomatic mission. Guillaume de Machaut,Jean Clopinel and Guillaume de Lories of France abd Dante,Boccaccio and petrarch of Italy immensely inspired him.Of course,Chaucer's foreign preceptors had divergent influences on him. That was why Chaucer could produce so divergent and so commendable literary works in English.
Under the French influence Chaucer wrote some of his earlier works, rather lyrical and allegorical. His love -lyrics, possibly his first works, works at present not extant. His earliest work was the translation of a long love poem in French - Roman de la Rose. But the authenticity of Chaucer's full contribution to in not free from doubts. Among his allegorical works mention may be made of The Boke of the Blanche of Lancaster, the first wife to John of Gaunt,his literary patron. It is a courtly and aristocratic elegy in octo-syllebic couplets. The poem is also an allegory and contains an instruction for beauty as symbolished in the deceased duchess. The Parlement of Foules and The Hous of Fame are also two allegorical works of Chaucer. They reveal, once again, his power to blend realism with allegory and exhibit his fine sence of wit and humour. The former poem presents a parliament of different birds- big birds of prey as also small,common birds. The other work,left unfinished, relates allegorically the caprices of fame. The Italian influence on Chaucer is felt in his two famous romances. His indebtedness goes to Boccaccio for both of them.These are knightes Tale and TroilusandCriseyde. In bot these works,the thrill of chivalrousand adventurous life and the tenderness of a warm and true love are dealt with all through. Through Chaucer was indebted to Boccaccio for the plot of his poems,his originality is remarkably perceived all through and the mere adventurous events of Boccaccio's tales are found transformed by him into highly impulsive love poems in the English language.These poems are, no doubt,romances, but they stand on a muxh higher footing than themetrical romances of the pre-Chaucerian medieval age.

Saturday, 27 August 2016


Chaucer belonged to the middle of the fourteenth century . And that was the latter past of the middle Ages . The designation of the dark ages for the period was then on the wane . Of course,calmities and upheavals were not all over . Periodic famines , after the Great famine and the dreadful Black Death , definitely affected much the quietude of the age . A good many people , particularly of the crowded towns , were killed by that deadlist epidemic black plague . As a result , he social state of the time was not all satisfactory . The curse of the fatal epidemic haunted all , rich and poor,and made life insecure everywhere . The political condition of the period was not all sound , too ,at that time . The hundred years'war , fought between England and France , still continued . That war , constituted of a series of conflicts , had two specific phases at this age . The Edwardian War (1337-1360) and the Caroline War (1369-1389).Of course , the English hold in France was in decline only to be completely washed away some years after by the emergence of Joan of arc.

Moreover,after the glorious conquest of Edward,there came the troublesome reign of Richard II , which was an unfortunate time for the English nation . In the religious matters , the age had the bitter taste of some unfortunate controversy within the Church . The mighty authority of the Catholic Church had dissension within and resulted in the rise of Protestantism in the earliest form , that was a prelude to the separation between Catholicism and Lutheranism and a definitive end to the unified Church of the Middle Ages . But the happy indication was there that despotism and corruption of the Catholic Church would not continue much longer .

Nevertheless,all was not wrong in England . The social condition of England in particular immensely changed from what it had been during the couple of centuries after the Conquest . The arrogant victorious Normans did no more consider themselves foreigners . They were merged,under the stress of changing political situations,with the English nation . There was a strong awakening of national pride and confidence in the formation of one nation by the Normans and the English . Moreover , the economic condition , particularly of the peasantry definitely improved . with better production and higher prices , a healthier living could be possible for the much subdued and oppressed peasant class before the peasants'Revolt.

Moreover , there was the rise of the strong , royalty-based nation-state-the Kingdom of England.The King began to be more assertive , free from the undue intervention of the haughty peers.Of course , the royal oppression remained , but much more confined . indiscriminate tyranny by the greedy lords and their followers were curbed to a great ectent . The right of the commons began to push itself forward. Their power came to be counted . But,what was of greater interest was the flourish of literature in England,so much needed for the emergence of the Renaissance,soon to follow . The great awakening of English literature in the second half of the fourteenth century , was particularly due to a great master . He multiplicity of occupations endowed him with wide experiences . His great literature was the direct result of his unique and varied experiences of life as a page , esquire , diplomat , soldier , official and courtier and of his wide acquaintances with great foreign literary masters of France and Italy.

Indeed , in the developed of English literature, Chaucer is a great name . The gradual advancement of English literature , from the Old English period to the Middle English , reched the height of excellence, in the age of Chaucer by his literary magnificence . Chaucer's uniqueness and significance in English literature are particularly borne out in the very designation given to his age as the age of Chaucer.

Monday, 22 August 2016


Native literature remained in a a prolonged silence for more than a century . Of course , there had grown , in the meantime , a kind of Anglo -Norman literature .That consisted of chronicles in rhymes .The revival of English literature was first heard through religious poetical works . The native tongues could express itself , under the rigours of foreign masters , only through religious matters initially . But those religious works were inspired by the literary ideal of the French .

The literary ideal of the French , however , was immensely different from that of the Anglo-Saxon . Anglo-Saxon literature was rather grave , reflective and pensive . But French literature was full of liveliness and gaiety . Anglo-Saxon literature mostly missed the finer element of humour or the sharp sense of wit . But French literature was immensely rich in wit and humour . Again , love , an elemental passion of life , was scrupulously absent in Anglo-Saxon literature , except in the three cases of short elegies . But love featured remarkably in French romance . Lastly , Anglo-Saxon poetry had but one metre-the alliterative . That single metre made Anglo-Saxon poetry monotonous and mechanical . The French lines , on the other hand , had the variety of different syllables and rhymes .

The earliest of those religious works was Poema Morale or Moral Ode , which was possibly written about 1170 . It was followed by the Ormulum or the Works of the Monk Orm , written about 1200 . The third important religious work was Cursor Mundi , written about 1320 . Another work pricke of conscience was possibly written in 1340 . Among those religious works , there was a fine prose piece , Ancrene Riwle , which might be taken as the best example of the prose of the time . The Life of Saint Brendan and The Life of Saint Dunstan were two other popular works of the period . All those religious works had thir inspiration in French religious poetry.

Saturday, 20 August 2016


The Norman Conquest imposed a French  Speaking ruling class in England . With their laws and administration ,the Normans imported into England a French literary ideal and a French culture . They were the conquerors and rulers of the land . Before their supremacy , the native tongue could not but draw back . It was dragged down and spoken only by the poor English people . Latin and French were the only recognised and honoured languages in the Norman Court . Consequently the English language was ignored and English literature remained silent for a pretty long time . In fact . the development of English literature was arrested for nearly a hundred and fifty years after the Conquest .

Of course , that was nothing unusual . After all , the Normans were superior to the Anglo-saxons , politically and militarily . They also had a better culture attainment , with their French language and French literary tradition that enjoyed then almost the position of the classical languages and classical literature .

When English literature reappeared , after a large of more than a century , it was found different , significantly influenced by French literature . The whole literary ideal underwent a great change , under the influence of French culture and French literature . Of course , the national vernacular literature of France was hardly transplanted to the English soil , just after the Conquest . But , in the next two centuries , the cultivation of romance immensely enriched and expanded English literature , under the French literary influence , direct as well as indirect .

The Nowman Conquest  contributed to the expansion of English culture and literature in other ways , too . First , there was the enrichment of the English language and literature  by the direct cultural and literary influence of Rome , Which the Norman had brought . Second , there was the immense enlargement of scholarship and learing as a result of the contact with the scholars of much reputed of Europe . Third , literary themes and expressions were greatly multiplied by the Norman inclusion of French themes and modes of expression . Fouth , the Normans inspired England with the ideal of a strong , National , centralised government , without which no nationality or national literature could at all flourish .


Historically the duration of the Middle Ages seems to vary from land to land . Commonly speaking it lasted from the fall of Roman Empire to the capture of the Constabtinople by the Turks in 1453 . But the full implication of the Middle Ages came to be assessed in different continental countries at different periods . In England , however , it started with the Norman Conquest and continued till the Revival of Learning .

The Middle Ages presented a picture of dark Europe . Constant warfare , fatal pestilence and grim famine were the general scenes of Europe in the dark Middle Ages . The existence of common people was pathetic and helpless . The triple authority of the Crown , of the Catholic Church and of the overbearing peers was reckless and ruthless in action and conduct . As a result , there were , on the one hand , tyranny and exploitation and , on the other , servitude and suffering . revered as the Crusades , for the liberation of Jerusalem .

Indeed , it was a dark time , the situation was nothing fair for the Common Englishmen , too . The forces at the top , individually or collectively , tortured and oppressed them with utmost severity . The occasional appearance of some chivalrous hero , like Robin Hood , perhaps , could bring a temporary relief for the suffering and oppressed masses .

There was , however , some beacon light even in the darkest time . That came throught the scholarship and humanistic approach of some fearless visionaries . The soul of Europe gradually awakened to sanity , justice and culture . The dark ages came to an end even before the chronological closure of the Middle Ages , Chaucer's great literature was a unique achievement in the end of the dark phase of the Middle Ages .

Thursday, 18 August 2016


The last Saxon king Harold was defeated by the Duke of Normandy , William II , in the battle of Hastings , fought in 1066 . That was the end of the Anglo Saxon authority and the beginning of the Norman rule . on the Norman rule . On the Christmas Day ,  1066 , William was crowned as the king William I of England .

The Norman Conquest of 1066 was a decisive event in the history of England in all spheres . It proved to be a landmark and brought about radical changes in all matters-in English life and mind . It did not merely introduce a new sort of assertive rulers , with their rigorous administive machinery . But it opened , too ,a new phase in the growth of English literature as well as language . There was the transition from the old age of Anglo-Saxon literature to Middle English literature or what is more commonly called Medieval English literature .

Middle English literature refers to the literature that existed betwixt the end of old Anglo-Saxon literature , and the beginning of new English literature , under the impact of the Revival if learning . It represents the medieval or middle ages , so full of romance and magic , chivalry and cruelty , heroism and villainy . It is found to bear out medical manners and aspirations , religious rigours and Social obligation .

The term 'middle English' was invented by the celebrated German philologist Grimm . He found In English the identical stages if growth in the German language in the medieval times . Middle English is definitely different fron old English and a bit more intricate , too . Whereas in Anglo-Saxon literature the only language was English , that language was completely dominated by the French language in Middle English imposes by the Norman rulers after the conguest .