Sunday, 25 September 2016

CHAUCER AS A MEDIEVAL POET


With Chaucer is perceived the beginning of an era- a new epoch - in the history of English literature . He is , indeed , the greatest name among the English men of letters before Shakespeare . But this is not all , for he had the credit to introduce the modern note into English literature.

Chaucer's achievement , as a poet and creative artist , as the maker of a literary tradition , can hardly be exaggerated . When examined against the background of Anglo-Saxon literature and Anglo-Norman , his uniqueness and anplitude , as a literary master , become clearly evident . In him is found a great innovator who brought into English poetry a light that had never been seen before , who raised English literature to a height that it had never attained before . In fact , in various ways and diverse forms , Chaucer is found to have erected an edifice of all gold over the hard stone of Anglo-Saxon literature and the barren field of Anglo-Saxon . 

But this is not all . Chaucer is a medieval poet , not simply a modern one , and he represents fully the medieval spirit that was dominant in the literature of his time . He belonged to the medieval world , in action and spirit , and knew medieval life in its various aspects . His multiplicity of occupation enabled him to grasp the numerous experiences , connected with medieval life and activities . His literary art is found to transmit much his experience and knowledge of medieval life and literature. 

One of the primary notes of medieval literature is found in its story-telling aspect . Under the French influence and the Italian , the medieval English poets displayed more or less too much proneness to story-telling . This is found perfectly expressed in Chaucer who has remained one of the finest story -tellers in verse in English literature . His numberous works , inspired under different influences , bear out his power as a story-teller . The Knightes Tale and Troilus and Criseyde , his notable works in the Italian period , are rich in the gifts of story - telling . Drawn from the sources of Boccaccio , these texts present the stories of a chivalrous and adventurous life , and the tenderness of warm and devoted love . Here they seem to bear the tradition of medieval romances , although they are made of a better literary stuff . Chaucer is found , no doubt indebted to Boccaccio  for the plots of his poems , yet his originality is well demonstrated all through , and the mere adventurous events of Boccaccio tales are found transformed into the highly impulsive love - poems by Chauces sheer poetic genius . In The Legende of Good Women , Chaucer's great gift of story telling also remarkably comes out . But the crowning piece of Chaucer’s literary genius is The canterbury Tales , in which the tales told are no less admirable and effective . These tales are the expressions of Chaucer's genius and profile in story-telling . This is definitely a medieval strand in literature , much perfected and embellished on Chaucer. 

Thursday, 15 September 2016

HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE

Various events to remember the history of the pearl string or garlands can remember his picture. Malata hold a full twist. Sutata cut the grain, such as one by one, after all, is not just the history of the sutata catch an event in the history of the whole world will feel an unrelated grain. Sutata able to catch up again, this will be possible to come up with the entire bisbaitihasake a Malayan.

Again, the pearl necklace, the beginning or end, but what it is impossible to determine. From anywhere you can go back over the whole malatara. World history or the history of any nation or community or state in any sense an important event in the history of chuilei be able to come back on. I discussed the history of English literature from the beginning to the end of the first or hate. I want to start from the middle or our recent past. A popular literary device as being "in the middle of midiyasa resa-start.

Starting from there, I'll run behind the front. Forty minutes since're going to run a big long walk because there is no scope in the field of history. Urabo like the eagle. Abide with me. However, we have already started to fly, however. Conversations are!

Many people write the story of his own life to write his autobiography. Just what is actually an autobiography of his life story? If we look at an autobiography, but mostly to see, occupies more space to other people, other people's stories. In fact, what may be the story of the people alone? Samparkaito with others to create the story of our lives.

The same did not apply to writing the history of a country? What is the history of a country when it is written in the stories that are written in this country or to other countries involved, what is friendship or enmity badhane bound or involved in writing, etc.?

What is the history of literature in the country, politics and other countries of the story / stories can be excluded?

I'll discuss what I know today, the history of literature, culture, philosophy, and his relationship with bahihbisbera was like, how he pulled reference?

What is novel in English literature there is no single Russian writer Leo Tolstoy's "War and Peace" or gastabha phlubarta French author of "Madame bobarira the world? This is the question many readers from the Encyclopedia of World Literature is mentioned britanikateo.

"It can be argued that no single English novel attain the universality of the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy's' War and Peace 'or the French writer Gustave Flaubert's' Madame Bovary."

(Entry: English Literature, Encyclopaedia of Britanica, V-18, page-426)

Another thing to keep in mind: This is the best English prose writers of the twentieth century, but the land outside of England! Starting from this time Salman rasadi VS naipala or Joseph Conrad, Henry James, from England, is one of the original.

What is the relevance of English and English literature to talk about? What about our relationship with them, many said bhasurera brothers. From Rabindranath cloud, Ghulam Murshid of Nazrul. Our past, present relationship was never tastes. Rather, acid-sweet, bitter-firewood all. A genius of Rabindranath Tagore in Bengali literature, saying:

"The English language through literature, learning to know and enjoy the arjitamana identity. Burke was filled dinarati bagmitaya, mekalera bhasaprabahera tarangabhange; Shakespeare's plays were regularly discussed, with Byron's poetry, and then sarbamanabera bijayaghosanaya politics. Then we begin the pursuit of freedom karechiluma people, but the hearts of the British believe in generosity. He believes that once was so deep that our sadhakera determined, by the conquered nation favors will be ample. "(Civilization crisis, ratha)

(Kalantara, Rabindranath Tagore)

The first thing to remember before you navigate to the main discussion is not mentioned. Ullamphanake is largely divided into a number of English literature. There is no mention of them in the first place.

School: Background of different groups, named-details

Writer-poet-cintakadera thinking in a certain period, variation or later finds matches of the author-poet-cintakagana. A common name for ekaname easily call their predecessors attempted to general trends in the history of art and literature. We have a lot of history to the era of English literature, will be familiar with many of the school. They were not aware of a single romantic trend Romantic poets. Gothic novelists did not know they were going to a particular section. Greibhaiyarda who came to be known as the school did not know that they'll be familiar with this name!

Spensariyana poets writing poems, they belong to those who like Spencer went. Metaphysical Poets themselves did not think this was to receive.

However, to facilitate the discussion focus on the division of English literature at the age of universally accepted:

TitleDurationThe Anglo-Saxon Period449-1066The Middle Ages1066-1485The Renaissance1485-1660



Elizabethan Age1558-1603Jacobean (Latin) 1603-1625Caroline1625-1649Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum1649-1660The Restoration and the Enlightenment1660-1798



Restoration Period1660-1700The Augustan Age1700-1750The Age of Johnson1750-1791The Romantic Period1798-1832The Victorian Age1832-1901The Modern Era1901-present



I will discuss the history of English literature from the beginning to the end of the first or hate. I want to start from the middle or our recent past. A popular literary device as being "in the middle of midiyasa resa-start. Yes, I would like to start from the Victorian era. And some of the early twentieth century, speaks again to go backwards.

Victorian era (18321900)

Great Victorian era a golden chapter in the history of Great Britain to Great Britain. Art, literature, politics, trade and influence in the world at the time exceeded all previous epochs. From the time of Queen Elizabeth of Britain as a world power began to emerge during the Victoria's morale is to become the world's most influential British Raj. With the political influence of politics and philosophy, as well as novels, poems and prose in English literature up to peak perfection.

However, Queen Victoria ascended the throne in 1837, but in 1832 the Reform Bill of 1832 because of the Victorian-era killing filler and literature since the Romantic era was a turn. A couple of years together in the fall of some big talent who died in the space of a few years. He was recently seen in the literature is a void. The survival of the foremost poets of the Victorian-era romantic poetry of William Wordsworth's one of the disappointments of losing the present time, and farming has kamduni. One thing to keep in mind Wordsworth of his best works he had written the first half. In fact, the second half of his long life, no celebrity could not leave without reminisced about the first half.

To understand the Victorian era should keep in mind a few days ago, the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the British colonies were so extensive that "the sun never sets in the British Empire is not. As a result of the industrial revolution was a revolution as the production system and its impact on the people. The old feudal society, breaking the bourgeois, capitalist social structure is being developed. Of course, has the effect of art, literature, philosophy and politics

Two important aspects of the Victorian era;

First of all, there was no fear of war or risk not from the outside (as it was in the previous yugatite. Especially Napoleon.)

Secondly, the whole time that was critical of the Christian faith, especially cintajagata.

Even the big vicissitudinous not trade the range or in the UK, social, religious spheres have been turned upside down the Victorian era. Crimea yuddhatai this period was the biggest battle for Britain. In addition, calls India's first freedom struggle 'Sepoy Mutiny' was the name of it is easily able to suppress. India's struggle for independence in 1857 after the failure of the whole of India came into Britain karatale. Came into the possession of Australia, Canada and many countries in Africa.

The large colonies around the world to collect raw materials for the production of large moves in Britain. Again, the market was prepared to sell their products at higher prices colony or colonies. Some large industrial cities in Britain was built. Manchester, lyankastara, Durham, Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Newcastle, one of nardramabaralyanda. Industries and production speed communication system with a lot of people come up to speed. Go to the giant Giant speed railway brings to people's lives.

As usual, people come to the cities in search of work began to increase the pressure. A few decades ago, people from the village to the agriculture industry workers began to write down the name. Victorian era, when it reached the extreme limit. People came and went in the village agricultural workers and laborers. At 70 percent of the total population in 1870 was seen in England was working. And only 30 percent remained in agriculture. Another information to remember. In 1825, when Britain had a total population of about 13 million, after the death of Queen Victoria, it had become a triple.

Britain is full, vibrant and full of people saharugulo production started. The working class is the main place in the shadow of the city's slums, or off the coast. The factory workers lived in filthy and unhealthy slums. Adequate light and air in 40-50 laborers worked together, slept. We'll describe the indescribable suffering of their writings Victorian novelists, poets, poetry and writing cintakadera. We note that if the country is to be very clear about.

Kamiunija to remember the Victorian age, sosalijama up revived as a political ideology. The massive exploitation of the bourgeoisie against the proletariat, the working class, a small neighboring European countries including Britain, the working class is slowly awakening. In 1848, Karl Marx and Engels published the famous "Communist Manifesto" or "Manifesto of the Communist Party." It is a Victorian gurutbapunya turning point. Another book in the Victorian era, thought, philosophy, science and literature that shook the world with utter the famous Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" (1859). It's all come out until dharmabhabana, samajacinta and struck down the framework of science. Next to him is the situation in the famous words of W. B. iyetas like:

Things fall apart, centre can not hold

Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.

So philosophy, science, dharmabhabanaya that its impact was being turned upside down samajakathamote, thoughts and sahityaritite industry. One thing that is noticeable in the Romantic era, a lot of gifted poets of the Victorian era before the junction with whom Britain was no longer the era to compare. Similarly, the best novelist of Victorian-era Britain, with whom, and what happened gadyakaradera samayayera assembly is not actually compare. However, some of the best poets of the time came, however, to separate yugatake especially for the novel and prose.

Britain, with its culture and its language is to expand the market is expanding. The British publishing world and a big jump silpabiplabottara. The idea of ​​public education to increase the number of people known to be read-write. It was in fact journals, periodicals and during the rise of the novel. In 1844, Britain's Telegraph dude in the whole of Europe took badhane cosmopolitans from a relationship. The time now is the Internet, Facebook, Skype, etc. can remember. They have brought a radical change in how our communication system. Like the telegraph and railway communication system is a milestone. At Elizabeth seiksapiyara, holding hands, such as Marlowe and Ben Jonson have already played an important role, as well as the role of Victorian-era novel has.

Sixteenth, seventeenth century was high drama, as well as the popularity of the novels of the nineteenth century, reached the top of popularity. Philosophy, poetry, science or commerce in a lot of the places discussed in the Victorian era. When you write a novel on the history of literature, however, will be more light. Queen Victoria, the heir to the throne since 1837 Dickens' pikauika Papers "in 1891 from the Thomas Hardy's novel Tess of the durabarabilas in the middle of numerous English literature Raushan increases.

The Victorian novels and novelists discuss agai. The name comes first in the list of novelists Charles Dickens (18121870) Name. Born in general is very poor and contribute to the great writers of literature is quite an honor to come up with the name of Charles Dickens. If writing a lot of money, prestige and contacts Dickens is one of the writers. Her writing has been on the struggle in his personal life, he grew up, his environment, his country and the society calacitra. Characters taken from his own familiar world or neighborhood. From an early age, but his first job was to enter the world of writing and popular writing hacchepikauika documents. It has been published continuously at 1836-1837. "Pikauika 'climbed to the top of the fame began. And just dhinano each milestone. Alibara twist (1837), Nicholas nikalabi (1838), The Old Curiosity Shop (1840), David Copperfield (1850-51), blika House (1852), Hard Times (1854), A Tale of Two Cities (1859), Great eksapekatesanas (1860), co-wrote more than twenty novels.

If there is an art to be entertained Charles Dickens is a great artist. She smile-cry of the people, teen-suffering has created a literary classic. He wanted to show the struggle of the weak against the triumph of literature vigorously. In exchange, he received the precious gift of the love of the people. Seiksapiyarera the popularity of the novel can be compared with the popularity of the drama. Both men, like their contemporary studies and tried to entertain them. In his writings contemporary London and its people and the struggle for existence in a manner which is due to come up with a "special correspondent for future generations' (like a special correspondent for posterity), journalist and essayist Walter bejeta his contemporaries called it.

Another British Victorian novelist was born in Calcutta, India, he is the William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863). The artist is attempting to exaggerate the novel gold. The name of its most famous and discussed the novel, Vanity Fair (1848).

Ekajhaka ramanikula

Ekajhaka outstandingly gifted Victorian-era literature, women writers threw a response. Among them at least four or five in the list of World Literature of the best novelists. They are: George Eliot, Charlotte branti, branti Emily, Anne branti, Elizabeth gasakela others.

Disaraili and Gladstone:

Nearly half of the territory at the time of Queen Victoria, Britain ruled the world. And within British politics would revolve around two important politicians. They Gladstone and disaraili.

Tuesday, 6 September 2016

CHAUCER'S SUCCESSIVE LITERARY STAGES

Three distinct periods or stages are discernible in Chaucer's poetical works , so vast and so varied . It is , however , not at all possible to ascribe any of his particular work to any specific period or stage . Some tales of The Canterbury Tales , for instance , were written by him in some earlier phase or time . But these are found grouped and arranged in the final stage .

These three Chaucerian periodss are the French , the Italian and the English . This division is based on the three distinct phases of Chaucer's literary career . But such a division is neither exact nor all fair . Chaucer works , attributed to the Italian period , thus , are marked with French influences . These works are liable to be construed as the works of his French period . This classification , made on the basis of distinct literary influences , is to be taken not too scrupulously .

The influence of French literature is remarkably patent in Chaucer's works all through . The Italian romances are found to inspire his story - telling in verse .  His acute observations on English social life and conduct are definitely discernible in his literary inspiration and success in the final phase of his literary career . as a matter of fact , a better appreciation of Chaucerian literature needs a close acquaintance with these three distinct influences .

To the French period of Chaucer belong some of his earlier works , which are mainly allegorical . Some of his love lyrics , marked with grace and tender sentiments. are the product of this period . Of course , most if these lyrics are at present no longer extant . The best known of such lyrics is the Romaunt of the Rose , a translation from the popular medieval love poem Roman de la Rose of France . The poem is rather long , and contains , in octo-syllable couplets , a graceful allegorical presentation of the whole course of love and reveals much of Chaucer"s originality . But there are controversies as to Chaucer's  exact personal contribution to the translation .

The most remarkable Chaucer's  works of the French period is The Boke of Blanche , the Duchesse , a courtly and aristocratic elegy , written about 1368-69 , to commemorate the death of Blanche , the first wife of Chaucer's patrin , John of Gaunt . This work is mainly allegorical , although it bears out decisively Chaucer's lyricism . The allegorical element of the poem carries a note of praise for beauty , signified by the late duchess . The longest of his early poems , this does nowhere appear abstract , although it has much of traditional elements-dream , mythology , fancy , and so on . It contains enough substance of reality in the character of the Duchess herself and in the deep grief for her death .

Monday, 5 September 2016

CHAUCER'S LITERARY GENIUS : HIS UNIQUENESS AS A LITERATY MASTER

With Chaucer is perceived the beginning of an era-a new epoch -in the history figure before the Renaissance and the greatest name among the English men of letters before Spenser and Shakespeare . But what is more , this is not all , for to him belongs the credit to usher in modern English literature . In various ways , Chaucer gave a new impulse and a new vitality to English literature , and raised an edifice of all gold over the rough stone of Anglo Saxon literature and the barren field of Anglo-Saxon literature and the barren field of Anglo-Norman. Chaucer's genius was versatile , as his life was varied and chequered. The variety of experiences, with which he was confronted in his personal life in various capacities -as a page, yeomen, soldier esquire, diplomat,courteir, official,Member of Parliament, and so on - was the source of his astounding and nobel literary inspiration. His multiplicity of involvements and occupations enabled him to grasp the numerous experience of life that include even his humble occupation as a page in the household of the countess of Ulster and captivity as a soldier during the seige of Rheims. The rare literary genius in him successfully transmitted all those experiences into his writings to create several lasting works of art. To the varied experiences of his life were added Chaucer's acquaintances with the literature of other countries, particularly of Italy and France, where he went on diplomatic mission. Guillaume de Machaut,Jean Clopinel and Guillaume de Lories of France abd Dante,Boccaccio and petrarch of Italy immensely inspired him.Of course,Chaucer's foreign preceptors had divergent influences on him. That was why Chaucer could produce so divergent and so commendable literary works in English.
Under the French influence Chaucer wrote some of his earlier works, rather lyrical and allegorical. His love -lyrics, possibly his first works, works at present not extant. His earliest work was the translation of a long love poem in French - Roman de la Rose. But the authenticity of Chaucer's full contribution to in not free from doubts. Among his allegorical works mention may be made of The Boke of the Blanche of Lancaster, the first wife to John of Gaunt,his literary patron. It is a courtly and aristocratic elegy in octo-syllebic couplets. The poem is also an allegory and contains an instruction for beauty as symbolished in the deceased duchess. The Parlement of Foules and The Hous of Fame are also two allegorical works of Chaucer. They reveal, once again, his power to blend realism with allegory and exhibit his fine sence of wit and humour. The former poem presents a parliament of different birds- big birds of prey as also small,common birds. The other work,left unfinished, relates allegorically the caprices of fame. The Italian influence on Chaucer is felt in his two famous romances. His indebtedness goes to Boccaccio for both of them.These are knightes Tale and TroilusandCriseyde. In bot these works,the thrill of chivalrousand adventurous life and the tenderness of a warm and true love are dealt with all through. Through Chaucer was indebted to Boccaccio for the plot of his poems,his originality is remarkably perceived all through and the mere adventurous events of Boccaccio's tales are found transformed by him into highly impulsive love poems in the English language.These poems are, no doubt,romances, but they stand on a muxh higher footing than themetrical romances of the pre-Chaucerian medieval age.